Chinese Culture of the Lhoba

Lhoba less ethnic Chinese population is one, according to 1990 census areas in the implementation of China’s statistics, a total of 2322 people. Mainly in the southeastern part of Tibet, the majority of Luo Yu region to Medog, Millington, Long Zi, Nyingchi, Zayu and several other border counties the most concentrated, while a few scattered in Lhasa, Shannan and cities.

    Before the 1960s, yet the national unity Lhoba clan name, and the tribe name themselves and each other match, such as “Bo Gaer,” “strong waves,” “collapse tail,” “collapse, such as” other. “Lhoba” is the Tibetan term for them, meaning southerners. In 1965, the PRC State Council, confirmed and approved “Lhoba” This family said.

    Lhoba language is Sino-Tibetan Tibeto-Burman, large differences across dialects, not the national language. Before the liberation, only a very few people who know the Tibetan language and Tibetan language, usually in carved wood, Jieshengjishi.

    Luo Yu is located in the Himalayas mountain valley, the area was north-south mountain range, lying north to south, the step-down. Mostly north-south river north and south, steep sides, beaches and more rapid current. And quasi-tropical climate is subtropical climate, abundant rainfall, fertile land. By topography, temperature, climate change is very obvious vertical, Lhoba proverb says: “mountain four seasons, different day.”

    Lhoba mainly engaged in agriculture. Collection and hunting in the production and life are of a considerable proportion.

    Sisu Lhoba daily lifestyle heavily influenced by the Tibetan, diet and food production methods, based on the same agricultural area with the Tibetans. Eating meat, dried meat, cheese, buckwheat cakes, especially like eating meals cooked corn stir lump, and loves to pepper meal. Vegetables, cabbage, rape, pumpkin, round roots (turnips) and potatoes. General alcohol, in addition to drinking barley wine, but also often drink corn liquor. Lhoba hunting wild plants are generally accustomed to the preparation of poison arrows painted on the shot at the beast. Hunting activities are mostly collective, hunting of all wild things equally.

    Festivals, rituals Sisu living in Medog, Millington area Lhoba follow the Tibetan calendar, the festival of all festivals and no much difference with the Tibetans. But most are using their presumed Lhoba calendar. As Lhoba scattered and inaccessible, over New Year’s date varies, in general, after the annual labor. So to celebrate the New Year are included to celebrate the harvest there, welcome speech the old meaning. In the New Year eve, every family should Tsuishine wine, butcher sheep, wealthy people have to slaughtering. New Year’s Lhoba Shimon said to “adjust more breast surgery Valley” section, then we should slaughter of pigs, cattle, lamb with Peel and cut into pieces, distributed to the people with the family. Many places to retain a “clan set” old habits, festivals, village residents gathered to bring their own wine and meat, the village men and women on the grounds of sitting, or drinking, or eating meat, singing and laughing constantly, for a variety of entertainment activities. Former owner of the guests eat and drink a glass of wine first, first Chiyikoufan to represent non-toxic and food to the guests in good faith. If guests come from afar, but also come up with their favorite Lhoba eat dried meat, meat, cheese, corn, wine, buckwheat cakes and pepper and other hospitality.

 Luo Yu region inhabited Lhoba long been a part of China’s Tibet. 1680, issue of Tibet of Laiwu Shi Mei mess Lama instruments, a clear record, “Yu Luo people, are also under the rule into my.”
    Lhoba is full of glorious tradition of struggle of the nation. Early in the 19th century, the British imperialist aggression forces to study, development, mission, collecting plant and animal specimens in the name, to send “expedition” to detect here, it was Lhoba people’s resistance. In 1911, the British imperialists sent to the southern Luo Yu espionage, were executed Lhoba Adi tribe. Lhoba people also come to provoke a harsh retaliation against the British imperialism “Apoll” expeditionary force. Before and after 1944 to a colony of British imperialism in India an excuse to maintain the illegal designated “McMahon Line”, the invasion troops Luo Yu region. In 1947, occupation of the Indian authorities after another corner of the door and Luo Yu, Ye most parts under the Chinese people of the Tibetan local government and Lhoba a resolute resistance.


Chinese Culture of the Monba

Monba mainly live in Tibet Medog, Nyingchi, Cona counties. “Mamba” means people living in the door corner. Has a population of more than 7000 (the fourth census in 1990).

    Monba has its own language, no text. Tibetan people because of long-term and close contacts, more knowledge of Tibetan language, Tibetan general.

    Believe in Lamaism, in some areas believe in the original witch.

    Monba beautiful folk tunes, popular long. Among them, “Sama” wine song and “garou” Love Song of the most imaginative and moving. Famous poetry collection “Lama Love Song” as the VI Dalai Lama by Lama.

    Monba mainly in agriculture, they sell livestock, forestry and hunting.

    Monba marriage as monogamous. More water was buried after death and burial, cremation and burial are also used. Tibetan festivals and the same, and with the Tibetan calendar.

    Sisu Monba eclipse daily meals, the staple food in some areas tsampa. Door Tawang, Cona County, Medog County and other places to chicken as a staple food grain processed into food. Processing methods are: chicken feet by threshing grain, dried, ground into fine powder, placed in boiling water Shaozhu, then with a mixer (a stick shaped like a paddle) again stirred into dough, cooked to consumption. Monba also like to use buckwheat noodles baked in thin buckwheat cake baked on a stone. Han eat the same rice, corn and chicken paste porridge made of grain is used for human consumption. Yak meat, mostly beef, pork and lamb and also food hunting of wild animals; method used to eating meat stew or made. Growing vegetables in some areas over a long history, varieties of pumpkin, cucumber, cabbage, tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, chives, etc. Monba use chicken feet valley, corn, sorghum and other food wine. All dishes are mostly wooden, Monba food workers making wooden bowls, has become the traditional handicrafts.

    Monba hunting hunting is a voluntary partnership of collective activity, acclaimed leader, who first hit the prey, the meat should share in the sub-double, and the remaining one per person. After hunting, the meat cut is good, grilled back back. If the game a lot closer to the village in a place away from ignition for the number, called the villagers to collusion, village after the game to extra points to the village or the common dinner. If the way home met the pedestrian, whether met or not, should a gift of prey that have such good luck next time hunting.

    Festivals, rituals Sisu Monba follow the Tibetan calendar, the festival is also the same with the Tibetans. During the holiday season to get rid of cattle sheep, repairing rich food and wine, dinner guests. Monba hospitality, where a guest to the whole family Xiejiu Dao Cunkou welcome home for the guests, and make rice, stew hospitality. Dinner guests, the housewife should stand aside and pour wine for guests, and to ensure that the glass is always full of guests. If guests will be very happy drunken master, that their faith is accepted by the guests. When the guests farewell to run the main house to send wine village. Monba scratch a funny wedding, wedding, groom party to the road with a few bamboo wine wedding, the bride three times on his way to drink wine. The bride entered the room, the groom’s family to put meat and wine and cake in honor of the guests, the bride’s uncle then deliberately making things difficult for the groom to be home, to test the sincerity of men’s side. A gift to the groom’s family, to accompany it, increasing wine and meat, until the uncle satisfied to drink it. Wedding, the groom, the bride turns to toast the guests, the guests also asked the groom, bride and mutual respect for the drink, and drink them in public test of who is faster, who should finish the metaphor for the future who is headed.

Chinese Culture of the Hoche

Hoche, a population of 04,200. Hoche majority live in northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province and Jiang, Fuyuan, Rao and other cities, counties, and the remaining are located in Jiamusi, Fujin, Mandarin, Huachuan, ylang ylang and other counties.

    Hoche has a long history of Northeast China’s ancient nation, “Sushen”, “pour Lou”, “Wuji”, “Jurchen” and has a close relationship between national origin, the Qing Dynasty’s “black pounds,” “He Zheha La” that is Hoche’s ancestors.

    Hoche people have their own language, Hezhen Altaic language is full – Tungus language family, not the national language, most common Chinese language.

    Shamanism Hezhe faith, believe in animism.

    Hoche in northern China only fishing for a living, with dog sledding nation.

    Sisu Hoche people like to eat everyday, “Lara rice” and “Mo Wen ancient rice.” “Lara rice” is a small millet or corn (m + check) the child made a very thick soft rice, mix with dried fish floss, or a variety of animal oil can be eaten. “Mo Wen ancient rice” is a fish or meat. Together with the cooked millet porridge made of salt. Now the same with the Han, the vast majority of people are eating bread, cakes, rice and various vegetables. Hoche has some unique fish, meat flavor food, can be divided into: ① raw food. Their remaining dried fish, raw meat and fresh fish. Lean fish, dried fish is to remove bones, cut into the fish section, block or sub-carved fish Phi dried, stored, eaten with a wooden stick to soft hammer, bushmeat is also processed into meat with this approach. Eat more fresh fish, raw fish is mainly side dishes. Hoche people call, “he Leka”; sashimi, Hezhen called “pull shop Turk,” is to tick off live fish, cut each into thin slices, dipped in vinegar, salt and pepper oil surface to eat; Liao Shao Yu film ” Dalegeqie “while they live fish tick down, cut into thin slices, skin on the fish pieces together, and then from one end of the string on the wooden sign, above the stir Liao firing four or five mature, and then cut into small pieces , dipped in vinegar, salt and pepper oil surface to eat. These two sites just fishing for human consumption. There is also a winter consumption of frozen fish fillets, commonly known as “fish shavings”, Hezhen called “Su Lake”, which is the finest real good fish frozen peeled whittled thin films, sturgeon, sturgeon fish, then even the brittle bones are cut each into thin slices, dipped in vinegar, salt, chives sauce, chili oil mixed sauce to eat. If the distinguished guests, and there is a frozen fish fillets is the finest drinks food, its taste delicious cool, still highly popular. ② cooked food. Such as processed sturgeon, sturgeon, salmon roe, the higher its nutritional value. Also fish and bushmeat steaming, baking, frying, stewing, boiling, frying and other food after processing techniques. Including dried fish floss each meal is essential.

    Festivals, ritual sacrifice Sisu during the holiday season, especially the Spring Festival is the most abundant food year day, and everyone should put the fish dinner, with locally produced various kinds of fish dishes, with red, transparent large Mahathir roe produced the most delicious dishes. Festivals, dumplings and vegetables must also be mixed with raw fish, drinking, not eat leftovers meal, the leftovers keep up, until Guowanchunjie before eating.

    Young men and women engaged in the process, to put both the elders and the dinner banquet matchmaker; wedding, the old man to the woman’s elderly King three glasses of wine. Wedding, the bride facing the wall “to sit blessing” until the delivery after the departure of the pro-people Sanxi, can come down to earth and together with the groom were to eat pig pigtail, the groom to eat pig, eat the bride pigtail, meaning husband collar With women, unity and harmony, and finally the bride and groom were eating noodles, to represent a loving, to grow old.

   Maternal eating millet gruel and rice gruel, fish soup, fish soup hoarse teeth, rabbit broth and “Mo Wen ancient rice”, patch, soup, eggs and other foods. Within three days after childbirth can not eat vegetables, avoid maternal and infant diarrhea. In the postpartum period are hot to eat hot meals, so cold, affect the health and milk. After death, must be made with flour and deep-fried pieces of various shapes Thin Thin dessert for the table to participate in memorial activities people are eating.

    Hezhen wine in the mouth before the first drink, first dip a little wine to use chopsticks Shuaixiang air and sprinkling the earth, to show respect the ancestors and gods. But does not like to drink tea, sometimes after the millet Chaojiao steep water, or the wild roses and leaves and small oak trees to the dried flower bud taken steep water drunk as a tea, but most of all like to drink throughout the year Health and cold water.

    Typical food Hoche typical foods are: ① PICKLES raw fish. Hezhen call, “he Leka”, in addition to regular consumption, but every customer is essential to the food, drinking is an indispensable food, a guest is not prepared this dish for the disrespect. ② dried fish floss. Hezhen called “Sri Lanka hate it.”

Chinese Culture of the Oroqen

Oroqen mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Hulunbeier Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Bute Ha flag, Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner, and Huma, Heilongjiang Province, xunke, Aihui, Ka Yin counties. Population of more than 6900 people (1990 census fourth).

    Oroqen family name first appeared in the early Qing Dynasty. “Oroqen” the word has two meanings: “Using the reindeer people” and “people on the mountain.”

    Oroqen nationalities have their own language, is full of the Altai language – language branch Tungus Tungus language family, but no text. General common Chinese language. Believe in Shamanism, the worship of natural objects.

    Before the liberation, Oroqen still in primitive society, the social division of labor within society has not yet formed, only the natural division of labor between men and women. Social production collective hunting, gathering and fishing, supplemented. After the fifties, the government’s support, started out of the forest Oroqen people engaged in farming and industry. Oroqen forest areas also become China’s important industrial base. Oroqen handicrafts are also more developed, mainly birch and leather products, fur products.

    1945 liberation. October 1, 1951 established Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Inner Mongolia.
Oroqen is a singing and dancing, young and old, will sing and dance. When returning to hunt or festivals, to be singing and dancing carnival. Oroqen are directed to sing folk songs, fast-paced, melodious tunes. Content mostly praise and love of nature, describes hunting and resistance struggle. Oroqen good at using dance to express their vision of life. A popular dance imitating animals and birds, the performance of the labor scene, as well as ceremonial. Oroqen instruments have. “Friends enslavement” (harmonica) and “Man soil culture” (tambourine) and so on. Oroqen rich folk literature, there are myths, stories, proverbs and riddles. Fairy tales are mostly about human origins, ancestral legends, and reflect the hunting life, such as “good and Aida Gillen Lungi”, “Gan River Mountains and the legend” and widely circulated.

In the past, Oroqen is hunting peoples, their clothing, food, housing, transportation, dance and so shows the characteristics of the hunting peoples, wearing clothes made of animal skins. Processing of animal skins Oroqen women have special skills, they are processed by the deer skin, firm, soft open umbrella, with more than 30 root Trunk barricaded outside the summer covered by birch bark, leather and roe deer in winter covered with reed screens. Can quickly barricaded, may also be demolished. Each: “fairy column” within the three sides live, side door, which has a fire, hanging above the vicinity of the mouth of a small wok ear for boiled pork. The roof to open a ventilation hole in the smoke.

    Sisu Oroqen daily to all kinds of bushmeat has always been the staple food, usually a solar eclipse, meals, meal time is not fixed. Winter in the sun is not out of the top dining, meal hunting; summer morning before hunting, hunting, and then go after breakfast. Sometimes also hunt the night. Morning and evening meals; Division by women at home kitchen. The main staple food in lean meat meals. In recent years, more than diet Oroqen many rice varieties, such as rice or millet boiled with Kosumi Johnson (rice porridge), boast too old (sticky porridge) and cooked rice; flour produced high Lu Buda (patch ), Ka Busha tender (cake), bread dumplings are also very common, very broad Oroqen meat, in addition to a variety of forest animals, but also predatory birds and river fish. Daxinganling specialty dragon (grouse) meat is tender, the most well-known. Consumption of deer meat is most common, followed by jail meat, the jail nose as delicious dishes. Joints of meat with the meat will cook in the pot, half-cooked fish after, each with a knife dipped in salt water and fresh excised, especially muscle meat eating blood, that blood tendons of bushmeat fresh and delicious, rich nutrition, and enhance the vision, fatigue and other therapeutic effects. Roe deer in the consumption of meat, like the liver and brain cooked chopped meat mixture, then add oil and wild boar mixed with chopped green onion and fresh. In recent years, Oroqen also used all kinds of bushmeat fine processing or fried, or fried, made into a variety of game dishes. Now with the production of a variety of cooking meat and vegetables are increasingly common. Oroqen save prey, mostly with dried method, especially in the summer, more than the bushmeat hunters Oroqen cut into strips, semi-tan, and then cut into small pieces and placed with a woven curtain rod on the Sargassum The following burning charcoal, with the smoke, can keep the meat go far unchanged. Oroqen adult men are good drink, drink, wine, there are two, one is the horse milk wine, with mare’s milk, millet, rice and millet child together, ferment one week more, and then steam distilled wine, Every family can be brewed; the other is white wine, mostly from overseas input. Before hunting in the winter, often drink a bowl of bear hunters Oroqen oil to enhance the ability to keep out the cold. In the past, in the diet, people have many taboos. Such as: eating bear meat should learn crows, which means the bear is to tell the mountains to eat bear meat in the crow. Between husband and wife after the death of one party, the other can not eat within three years of beast and internal organs. Some places also prohibit women from eating bear meat, women are not allowed to eat birth beast and beast heart and so on. Today, these taboos have changed.

   Festivals, rituals and worship of ancestors past Oroqen Sisu, worship the natural world, believe in animism. Annual Spring Festival of the twelfth lunar month 23 and the morning, worship the god of fire Oroqen home, burn incense to the fire, and threw a piece of meat, and shed a glass of wine when the guests come New Year, also thanks to the fire first, and then to the fire throw a piece of meat and a glass of wine (mostly from the guests bring their own). Oroqen hospitality simple, sincere, pack the meat hunters returned, whether met or not, as long as you say you want a little meat, the owner immediately hunting knife to you, where parts of the damage, cutting the amount of guests by yourself, the owner very generous. Oroqen paid great attention to etiquette, care for the young is a tradition. No matter what the occasion, have to be so old man sitting in front view, open cup drinking up to the elderly, such as the elderly to eat meat knife Dongkuai, other people move. Used to live immortal column (Oroqen language, which means the house block the sun, is a primitive housing), if there male guests that are generally required to allow the guests to the position of being on the door, the female guests are let to left and right position. Oroqen hospitality, guests visit the Friends, in addition to meat, good wine reception, guests parting on the occasion, but also gifts of their own souvenirs.

 Founding of the PRC on the eve of Oroqen clan society in the shell to retain the end of primitive society the family commune stage, the main production activity is hunting, supplemented by fishing, collecting and handicrafts. Oroqen family commune called “Uli Lenz” (meaning “descendants”), it is Oroqen basic economic unit of society, its internal production, public, working together, hunting objects allocated by households.

    After the founding of the PRC, the progressive introduction of Oroqen settled, bright and spacious brick house instead of the previous. “Immortal column” from the past production of a single hunting to agriculture, forestry and a variety of business simultaneously. In the 1990s, and gradually run from a number of township enterprises and the tertiary industry, annual per capita net income of farmers reached 1000 yuan. Education is the rapid development, has made great achievements in every 10,000 people in various cultures of the number of education are more than double the national average, completely changed the old days, it is basically illiterate Oroqen backward state.
Significant contribution to> top
    For a long time, E London dependents and people of all one family, one succumbed to imperialist bullying, anti-imperialist struggle waged an unyielding, especially in safeguarding the unification, the struggle against foreign aggression, to make an important contribution . Mid-17th century, Tsarist Russia invaded China’s Heilongjiang River, northeast Oroqen people and people of all ethnic groups waged a heroic resistance, “kill Rakshasa (Russia aggressor) is very public.” Autumn 1900, in Aihui battle, with the Boxer Oroqen Colts start with Russia invading army bloody. They charge forward, was born dead, a heavy blow to the aggressors. Anti-Japanese War, Oroqen children actively participate in the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, and fought bravely. Regardless of the local people Oroqen cruel persecution of the Japanese invasion forces, lead the way to the Anti, messenger, and transportation, reconnaissance and enemy, together with the anti-attack base, with their blood to defend the dignity of the motherland.

Chinese Culture of the Dulong

Dulong has been called the “Qiu” and “music” and “Luo”, “Song Luo”, etc. According to the national aspirations of liberation, name the Dulong. Are mainly concentrated in Yunnan Gongshan Dulong River Valley. Population of 5800 people (the fourth census in 1990) than the birth of new China, an increase of 23,000.

    As the environment is very closed off from the mainland, until the middle of this century, the disintegration of Dulong is still in primitive stage. People to grow, mainly hunting and gathering, wearing their own yarn woven linen, a few others with leaves, animal skins to cover. Women are also advocating the custom pattern surface.

    Drung language and the language of your basic similarities mountain Nu, Dulong is a Sino-Tibetan Tibeto-Burman. No text in this nation.

    October 1, 1956 established the Yunnan Gongshan.

    Sisu Dulong a solar eclipse two meals daily habit. Breakfast usually fried or barbecue potato barley; dinner places corn, rice or millet mainly made of rice, sometimes with all kinds of wild plants, roots and ground into cakes or porridge made of edible starch. With wild roots or fruit production of starch, the more food will be collected, such as Wild Yam, wild chestnuts cooked with fire, and then rinsed with water 2-3 days, remove the bitterness, the sun pounded powder days after collection, used with the check . A swallow of wild plants and Dong brown, is a local tree, the grown, the wood turned into starch. Eat suck when the first pieces of its stems, and then soaked in water, filter residue, to clarify for the starch, sweets made with honey and mix well, taste like lotus root starch. In the Dulong people, and still retains many ancient cooking methods, the most common are branded with a special stone pot cooked stone Baba. Poker stone Baba, the multi-use A swallow or director of palm starch, into a paste with the eggs and then pour on a hot stone pot, with branded with the food, unique flavor. Dulong everyday dishes with garden planted potatoes, beans, melons, have collected bamboo shoots, bamboo dishes and a variety of fungi, are usually accompanied by eating hot pepper, wild garlic, salt, and after a pot of cooked food. Winter is the Drung area hunting season, hunting of wild meat beef is the main winter. Edible wild beef, dried beef are first, then baked Wei Huo, and then pounded filaments, made of floss or cut into small pieces, stored within a sealed bamboo tube or carry. Dulong also teem with fish, fish with scales mostly small thick-skinned. Dulong like eating fish grilled or fried with fire roasted to eat after dipping sauce, and grilled fish as often drinks to side dishes. Pupae are the most luxurious dishes civil Dulong one has more centenarians Dulong said, and eat the pupae. Whether drinking, eating and meat, Dulong eating within the family by the housewife. Guests are also coming to an average. Generally speaking, each family has a number of the fireplace, each child after marriage to add a fireplace, cooking hearth in turn by each bear.

    Festivals, religious rituals Sisu Dulong past is still in a relatively primitive nature worship or animism stage, even if the only New Year (Drung language: card bird wow) and is linked to religion. Wow every year over the winter bird cards one day at the twelfth lunar month (around the time varies). Section duration often determined the amount of food preparation. Usually two-day or four or five days. New Year period is the most solemn festival, “Rituals Heaven.” Rituals will host the New Year when the cattle first be tied to the stake, then the cow’s back by the young woman draping linen blanket, is linked to the horn beads, gracefully offerings, lit torch and pine wool (pine needles) , the last queen of young parents by a man with a sharp bamboo spears stabbed the cow, and then place the beef cut, immediately use the cooking pot. During the holiday season to all of the Dulong family as a unit to be, exchanged greetings, shared congratulations. Dulong civil invite each other very unique way, usually with a piece of wood as an invitation to the other side of the invitation, will take wood to the house to invite the guests, carved in wood Jidao gap, says a few days later at dinner ceremony. Invited guests to bring a variety of food to show appreciation. Guests enter Zhai, the first drink with the owner of a wine barrel, and then seated dinner, and watch the song and dance performances. Man Huotang Bian drink at night read message, and then left wide Tong Punch Bowl on bamboo racks to overturned sized as auspicious. Some of the stockade at dinner the next day, but also at Shooters celebration, and buckwheat noodles mixed with honey and mud with a variety of animal’s head, at sunrise worship in the slope behind the house, and then young striker gracefully holding his bow and arrow in advance of target, and finally made with buckwheat offerings distributed to onlookers. Wedding when Dulong mostly feminist, chickens Zhijiu hospitality. When women give birth to a child after marriage, father-son should get a cow or something else such as a wok, a knife and so grateful. Dulong nature pure and honest, even if the road meet, but also Zhijiu treatment that does not give the guests a meal to eat, leaving the guests live in the dark, is a shameful thing. Where the building to build a house, weddings and funerals, must take the initiative to help solve the problem, the case of prey or butcher slaughtering, must be invited to distant neighbors dinner, after dinner and active in the gifts.

    Dulong mostly inhumation, the day after the death of the village and the proximity of relatives who have sent food, wine, chicken, etc. to show mourning, usually the next day the funeral procession, the third day will be led by the family of the deceased to the village opening their own warehouses on the spot cooking wine, along with sharing. And some feminist hospitality, to show reward. By then, family members and friends also sent a gift, this funeral banquet, usually from the afternoon, has been eating late at night, taken to drink to be distributed to the deceased, a constant, while the village for the elderly is also home to send some food to the dead go.

Dulong’s name, first seen in “Great Yuan Yi Tong Zhi” customs of Lijiang Road, known as the “prize”, known as the Ming and Qing Dynasties, “Qiu” or “song”, also called “Qiu” and “Qiu child” . Historical records, Tang and Song dynasties are Nanzhao, Dali jurisdiction, Yuan Ming and Qing Mu’s toast is a rule of Lijiang, Lijiang Naxi CommScope placed under the mid-Qing, Ye 1000 total charge of two land, owned by Ye soil one thousand after the presidential jurisdiction. 1909 full-time appointment, “Qiu pipe” under the jurisdiction of independence, r. region. 1918, set the iris in this barrel Gongshan County Civil Administration, set up in 1933 to Gongshan Political Bureau, and thus the implementation of the Bao-Jia system in Gongshan region.

Dulong is a happy song music and dance of the nation, regardless of the production, harvesting, hunting, building houses, marry, festival, like song and dance to express their feelings, tell their inner emotions. Dance with the accompaniment of musical instrument strings mouth, crude saltpeter gongs, flutes, percussion section, etc. Mouth string generally by women to play, singing and dancing, even drinking. Each adult men and women are good at recalling the tragic, series impromptu song or dance in place. Dance, some men and women in a row in a row, relative and dance, some dance around the circle. Brandished a knife and holding the bow or dancing, or climbing the shoulder handles, one emotions, dance fitness, demonstrate Drung were rough, brave temperament and style.

Dulong people in the past both men and women to wear hemp clothing clothes and wearing a copy by the left shoulder to the chest under the arms, exposed the right back, tied with rope or bamboo needle knot, Phi fall freely. Mostly during the day for the coat, the night was done. Men under the shorts, machetes and arrows usually wear hi package. Preferences of men and women build, hair, hair style before the bang, after the shoulder, around the ear cover, there is no difference between men and women. Women wearing earrings, neck wear beads tied at the waist stained thin hoop, a small bamboo basket hanging out back, mostly the lower body color linen aprons, leggings with a leg on the linen. Women face a pattern of practices. Dulong’s staple food is rice, wheat, adopted son, due to the lack of food, hunting wild animals is a source of food. Dulong like drinking wine, tea and smoking pipe down. Accustomed to eating grilled meat. Dulong bamboo houses, mostly wooden houses or rooms, bamboo room with the same structure and shape of wooden houses, but the material of wood or bamboo-based. Room equipped with two or more fireplace, fireplace in the room on both sides of a symmetrical arrangement, but also in room corners. Parents at the top of the fireplace, a fireplace is equivalent to a small family, married children just around the fireplace and their own places, regardless of home. If several children of marriage, housing is not enough, in the new house next to the parent room at the stamp.

Despite the gradual establishment of Dulong family monogamy, but the past still preserved some of the original marriage group marriage and dual residual, there is polygamy, wife sister is married and the results of the system to switch rooms. Dulong young men and women free dating before marriage, but marriage is arranged by the parents of the conclusion of full, multi-hour engagement, to a certain bride price, to the age to get married. Married one child each, send father-in-law to a cattle or a thing. His wife died at a young age, father to son to return part of the bride price, to help him remarried.

Dulong’s most inhumation burial, a small number of patients suffering from the evil of those who died or water burial cremation practice.

Dulong past believe in animism, worship of natural objects, believe in ghosts. That wind, rain, electricity, thunder, mountain, flood, rock, strange tree Jieyou ghost. Ghosts evil in people, so people to pray to avoid disaster, we hesitate to spend a lot of animal food offering to a ghost. Conducted by the shaman ghost festival Dulong, the shaman, there are two, called “Namu Sa”, presided over worship, mercy, and another called “wood wins Sa”, specializes in exorcism, “Namu Sa ‘of higher status. Dulong is the only New Year holiday, when the lunar calendar, there is no fixed date, depending on the length of holiday foods on how much.

Chinese Culture of the Tatar

Tatar mainly in Yining, Tacheng, Urumqi and other cities. Originally known as tartar. “Tatar” is intended as a “cottage.” Population of more than 4800 (4th 1990 census).

    Tatar language belongs to the Altaic. Arabic alphabet has been used to text-based, are generally common Uighur or Kazakh. Mainly engaged in commerce and handicrafts. Islam. Tatar Orissa Festival is a unique festival, also known as Ploughshares section, in general, held in June each year.
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Tatar diaspora cities, mostly in education, culture and education for the development of Xinjiang make an important contribution. Tatar people was built in 1912 built a “Snow Guy (Tatar another name) school” by the contemporary Tatar intellectuals Nantuo La teach, teach new culture of knowledge – mathematics, language, history, geography, nature, social history and so on. This is a minority in Xinjiang to establish a new school earlier one. In 1915 the school expanded into women’s school, the absorption Tatar, Uygur, Kazak girls school, is the oldest girls school in Xinjiang. It was created, is the rise of a new cultural symbol of education in Xinjiang.
    In Kashgar, Aksu, long-term coaching Tatar teachers Ahmed bought Tifei force Hendrick founded in 1934 to Akzo Normal School, to develop a group of Uighur and Kirghiz teachers. Later, these students return to their home, opened more than 20 schools.
    Today, the Tatar people in each primary school level and above have the population has lead in the country; college educated population, the proportion of its total population is the national average of 2 to 4 times. Tatar people have their own language, Arabic characters, create a phonetic system based on the mother. At the same time, many of them were also familiar with Uighur, Kazakh, Kirgiz language and other ethnic languages. Tatar has a variety of literary forms and works. Such as: fables, stories, legends, folk songs, poetry, drama, opera, comedy and so on. The most distinctive is folk, there are work songs, love songs, custom songs, game songs. In a written literature, poetry dominant. Classical poet Eric’s “Yusup and Zi Lan Han,” China Lazi Mi “love book” library Tibi’s “He Silao and Xilin”, are handed down masterpiece. Tatar literary circles in the late 19th century played a leading role, known as the founder of modern Tatar literature, the famous poet Abdulla Tuba by, his poetry has a strong patriotic and democratic mindset.

    Sisu Tatar accustomed to three meals daily solar eclipse at noon to dinner, morning and evening of refreshments, face the daily diet without meat and milk, sometimes also eat some rice, but are made into a special food. Tatar women are known for superb cooking skills known, good at making all kinds of cakes, such as flour, big Mega cheese, eggs, butter, raisins, dried apricots baked “ancient worship at the end of Aye”, the crispy outside, soft inner layer, well-known flavor of Xinjiang; have mixed grilled meat and rice, famous for the “ite white West” dim sum, but also good with eggs, butter, sugar, milk, cocoa powder, soda and flour made from beautiful and delicious Nang. In addition to the daily staple of meat, Carter Lite (with beef, potatoes, rice, eggs, salt, pepper as raw material, similar to the pilaf), Nang and noodles, there Pala Marcy (pie) , dumplings, pancakes oil (with potatoes) and so on. Tatar drinks with flavors like: similar to beer, “g child the West Ma”, is made with fermented honey, as well as with Major Combat Mana, made of sugar and starch, “Ke Saile,” and so on. Meals, are put in front of each person a small towel to wipe the mouth, hands and prevent food spilled on clothes. The whole family sitting around the middle to put a meal on the table cloth, eating habits with a spoon, knife, fork. On tea, the meal, first given to the elderly, then age has delivered. Complete meal to do “Bata” (prayer) be considered the end of dinner.
Before the establishment of the People’s Republic, Tatar mainly engaged in commercial activities. Small number of large commercial capitalists set up in Xinjiang, “Matheson,” and firms engaged in import and export trade between China and Russia, and some ancillary processing plants, and major cities in the Mainland set up a semi-colon. Most small and medium traders in the foreign capitalists and big business under the exclusion of competition, struggled hard.
    Tatar is also engaged in animal husbandry and handicrafts. Before 1949, animal husbandry long-term economic stagnation. After the founding of the People’s Republic, People’s Government formulated a series of policies conducive to development of animal husbandry, the establishment of a veterinary station and feed base to help pastoralists to build the hut, improved varieties, protect livestock disaster, disease control, animal husbandry has been more rapid development. Leather, casings and other handicrafts also will be developed.
    Festivals, rituals Sisu with other local Islamic nation such as the Uygur, Kazak and other similar.

    Tatar class section of Caesar “Caesar class festival,” also known as “Ploughshares Day” and more in the spring scenic venues. Song and dance, as well as wrestling, call the river, horse racing and other group activities. The most popular is the “jump race run.” Each participant will be an egg on the spoon in the title in the mouth, the egg can not fall, the first run wins.

Chinese Culture of the Jing

Jing mainly live in is known as “Jing Mishima,” said Jiang Ping, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Fangcheng of all Township Man tail, witch head, heart of three mountains on the island, the rest are located in Tan Ji, Hong Hom, Hang Wang and Yen County.

    Jing ethnic population of 18,900 people (the fourth census in 1990).

    Jing, history, claiming to be “Beijing”, “more” or “Kofi Annan”, 1958, according to the wishes of the nation, approved by the State Council officially named Jing.

    Jing ancestors in the sixteenth century about Tu from Vietnam and other places came drifting. At the time, here is desolate uninhabited island, and they gradually moved to the Han and Zhuang ethnic groups with the development and construction of the three islands. Jing region and adjacent to Vietnam. 19th century French occupation of Vietnam, many invasive China Jing region, Beijing and the local people of all ethnic people closely united, a heroic struggle against the French imperialist aggression. In the Sino-Japanese War, the liberation war and the founding of New China border battle defending the motherland, the Jing people have made their own contributions.

    Jing has its own language, but the language of the system is uncertain. No text, the vast majority of common ethnic Chinese in Beijing (Guangzhou dialect) and the Chinese language. Jing rich oral literature, its poetry, plays an important role. Jing people love to sing, songs, tunes are 30 kinds of wide-ranging, there are folk songs, love songs, wedding songs, Fishermen, narrative songs. Jing single harp is unique ethnic instruments, sound is very elegant and appealing. Jing people like to “sing Ha” (meaning sing), Zhugan Wu, single harp, known as the capital of culture, linking the three “pearls.”

    Jing is mainly engaged in coastal fisheries. Jing is the only Chinese minority nationalities live in the sea, in the past relatively simple way of life, reform and opening up, Beijing peoples developed agriculture, fish processing and artificial cultured pearls, the hippocampus and other aquaculture.

    Jing housing mostly brick houses, to prevent the sea breeze, building more durable. Rice-based diet, eating more fish, like to use fish sauce to taste. Women wear tight sleeves tight breasted collarless jacket, long pants and wide; man T-shirt and knee length, tight sleeves low-necked, belted waist.

    Jing main religion of Taoism, the minority Catholic. Traditional festivals are Spring Festival, Tomb Sweeping Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival and sing Ha Festival. One of the most grand and most exciting festival is “to sing Ha Festival” (Song Festival). Ha ha sing more in the pavilion held Ha Pavilion is a unique national style buildings.

    Jing Ha Festival is a traditional festival. “Ha” is a phrase in Beijing “song” means, Ha Festival, the singing festival. Different from region to region, at the dates are inconsistent. Wan Mei, the first two witch tenth day in June, Mountain Heart (Island) in August tenth day. It is said that seven or eight hundred years ago, there was Gexian Jing came to a beautiful region with a deep meaning of the song to resist the feudal landed gentry, by Jing people welcome. To commemorate the Gexian, it established a Kazakh Pavilion. During the festival, the whole village gathered together, singing and dancing all night, and was held in Ha Pavilion temple, worship, contest, wrestling and other activities.

    The end of 1952 the establishment of Man, the first witch, mountain heart three townships. May 1, 1958 to establish Dongxing of all counties. 1965 Dongxing County ethnic groups classified by the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong Province, December 25, 1978 was renamed the Fangcheng of all counties.

    Sisu Jing daily habit in most parts of the solar eclipse three meals a day, living in Wan Mei Jing is generally used to eclipse two meals, breakfast in the morning about eleven multiple choice, until the night after dinner. Jing often the last corn, sweet potato, taro mixed with a small amount of rice porridge as a staple food, fishing or just harvest large amount of labor when eating cooked rice. Today, rice has become the most common staple food Jing had. In addition to rice to make rice, but also often made of flour, “the wind (m + One)” and “(m + one) wire.” “Wind (m + One)” is made with rice, steamed nearly 1 foot in diameter round thin cake, sprinkle with sesame seeds and dried, and then after eating grilled on charcoal, crispy and tasty. “(M + one) wire” is made with rice flour vermicelli, dried, processed food. “(M + One) silk” is a favorite dish Jing people, the “(m + One) silk” conch meat, crab meat mixed with boiled (m + one) wire spiral broth, entrance Ganxiang, tender, flavor unique. Daily dishes, to fish-based, often made of fish, fish sauce, leave the meal as a condiment. Backyard pigs, chickens, meat is the main source of daily. Jing past are not allowed to bowl cover on the boat home, not allowed on foot in the kitchen so taboo.

    Festivals, rituals Sisu Jing most solemn, the most popular festival is “to sing Ha Festival.” Over the past year are held around the dates vary. “Sing Ha” is a phrase here meaning singing entertainment, festival day, the village people of all ages should wear costumes, gathered in Ha Pavilion (singing entertainment in public places) before the temple, worship, pray protect fisheries harvest, livestock very well. Ha Festival each year by the village people take turns doing “Ha head” (Ha chair singing entertainment section of people), by “Ha head” out of a pig, do participate in table wine and meat. Take turns singing on the banquet, only to listen to women singing, do not take a seat. When the New Year, every family has to do “sweet potato (m + One)” (packet of sugar with a heart made of glutinous rice flour a pastry), New Year’s Day Breakfast not eat meat does not drink, only sugar porridge, dumplings and cake sweet potatoes (m + one). Dragon Boat Festival to eat glutinous rice dumplings and wine on the family; Mid addition to making glutinous rice, sugar, rice porridge and wind (m + One), but also buy pork and eat moon cake family reunion dinner. Jing young men and women engaged to the man to use a certain amount of pork, cakes and pastries as a gift to the woman, the poor have to send home a small amount of sugar, rice, tea, pastry, as set wedding. Marriage, the man to prepare a hundred pounds of pork, two hundred to mention wine (each put equal to 200 grams), seven bucket meters and other gifts to give to the woman. Married three days, the bride “resurgence”, the couple will take home two tray red glutinous rice (about 6 pounds), two pork, chicken, thanks to two back to her parents thank her parents, considered the end of the wedding.

    Sisu Jing worship more than the last general Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic minority. Keiichi holidays, ritual activities should be carried out. During the Spring Festival to the Kazakh village kiosks to be pork, chicken, fish offerings to worship the gods, to go home after paying respects to ancestors. Shou-year-old, you must ancestral tablets before, put the sweet potato (m + one) can only sleep. Fifteenth day of small years, will also prepare pork, chicken, fish Baizu. Cook pork Baizu Jing woman get married, or a ritual practice. Ha Festival each year, where over 16-year-old man to be provisioned chicken, wine, sticky rice, betel nut and other sacrificial offerings to the Ha Pavilion, considered through the worship of man “into the public” (ie, into adulthood), in order to be allowed to join to sing Ha Festival seated activities, from fishing can participate in production. Jing folk in the past, every new network to the sea, or seafood harvests, should be repairing a variety of offerings to the sea to worship, pray for the safe return of those who protect the sea fisheries harvest.

    Typical food Jing typical foods are: fish sauce, also known as “catfish juice” is non-traditional condiment Jing, through a variety of pickled fish.

Chinese Culture of the Yugur

Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province Yugur live in the Sunan region, the rest live in Jiuquan Huangnibao area. Population over 15,000 (2005). Yugu self-proclaimed “Yao almost Seoul,” “Jade Solid two pull Seoul.”

    Yugu originated in the Tang Dynasty nomadic Orkhon valley in the Uighur. 9 mid-century, including a move to Gansu Hexi Corridor area, called the “Hexi Uighur.” Early Ming, gradually moved along the Qilian Mountains, and gradually formed a Yugur. 1953 by the nation to determine “the Yugur” family. February 20, 1954 the establishment of Gansu Sunan.

    According to geographical distribution, Yugu three languages: Altaic Turkic language of the Yao almost Seoul, Engel Altaic language family of Mongolian and Chinese. No text of this nation, the general common Chinese language.

    Yugu is the national animal husbandry. In the past, they not only lived in felt tents, clothes, shoes and socks, eating meat, milk and animal products, and production and daily life with most of the appliances are also made of fur. Now, some people have to mainly engaged in agricultural production.

    Believe in the Gelug Sect of Lamaism Yugur main (Yellow Sect).

    Including cremation, burial, funeral burial three kinds of forms.

    Marriage is monogamous, marriage is prohibited between the same family surname.

    As the nation lost the text, oral folk creativity has become a major national art form Yugur. “Huangdai into” “Surrey Make”, “We come from the west to the Kazakh” is well-known folk songs Yugur.

    Sisu milk and tea daily in the daily lives of people Yugur occupy a very important position, the public has a meal of tea three times a day or two the habit of tea and a meal, after getting up every morning, usually the first pot of water, or just getting scoop a spoonful of tea sprinkled around the tent, which means a new day has begun, and then transferred to butter, salt and stir to drink milk again. If we add butter, Naipi, Triton (milk, pimple), fried noodles, red dates, or can be as soon as the Elaeagnus. Have tea at noon, and some people on the fried noodles, and some people on Tangmian or pancakes, counted lunch. Or afternoon tea in the tea with added milk or eating butter and thick milk (yogurt). In the evening, until the end of all labor, began a formal dinner. Generally at night to eat rice-based meal, with rice, noodles, patch, and so on. Yugu usually like eating beef, mutton, usually beef, lamb clutch made of meat, all sheep, cattle, sheep back child (that is, to a complete cow, sheep, cook and serve the haunch bone), lamb stew of air-dried lamb dry, cattle, sheep offal soup. In addition to beef, mutton, but also eat meat, camel meat, chicken or cooking. Beef cattle, sheep, often combined with garlic, soy sauce, vinegar, etc. Due to natural conditions, pastoralists rarely eat fresh vegetables, can only capture some wild onions, Allium, wild garlic, wild leeks, and to roll the skin (like mushrooms) and other vegetables. Fresh mushrooms everywhere on the grassland in autumn, autumn is so fresh mushrooms eat the food. Yugu main yak milk food, cattle, goat’s milk-based production, with sweet milk, yogurt, Naipi son, butter, and Triton. Sweet boiled milk is milk consumption directly; boiled milk yogurt is cooling after adding the right amount of milk fat (also known as milk slot) that is a sweet and sour fermented yogurt; Naipi child is cooked milk Yang echoed with a spoon to make milk foam and grease floating on the surface of milk, and finally cemented layer of yellow film, after removing the child is Naipi. Naipi child is used to tune the best nutritional supplements tea. Method of making butter is basically the same as Tibetan, is about to milk or goat’s milk into the milk bucket or smoked over wood cattle, sheep stomach, sheepskin bag, at the right temperature, after two hours put pressure or shaking, then butter condensate accumulation in the milk bucket or leather on the mouth, into the water pot to take with both hands repeatedly tapping Serve. Goat butter is white, milk, butter yellow, can store more than a year, is a junior tea, a strong body of important food. After mentioning butter milk, after evaporation of the water made Triton. In addition, Yugur also like rice, the more Juema Riga porridge, raisins, dates, mix sugar and butter, or rice, yellow rice, add some lamb in small, yogurt, as a staple food. Affected by the Han, Yugu usually also made patches like the flour, fried cakes, buns, etc., but also like to use fresh milk and flour, deep fry with butter oil  son, also called milk  child. The most good is to eat dumplings, in the winter, and everyone have to do many of the dumplings, then freeze up, is to eat are cooked, and some people even have to be kept busy spring, when the eat.

    Festivals, rituals Sisu or a guest at the happy occasion to, Yugu household must come to celebrate the best food and hospitality, traditional folk have a toast after the first offer tea habit. Hospitality and festive during the most attention, the best food for cattle, sheep and all sheep son back. Yugu hospitality sincere and honest, hate hypocrites, and upon the identity, social status and relationship with the host family, the meat is divided into first class, second class, slaughter a sheep divided into 12 and so on. The amount of people gifts, guests can take away. Wedding, first day to make tea by the woman’s home and entertain guests grasping flesh, and the second three days is the climax of the wedding to the man’s home slaughtering, sheep repairing banquet, banquet guests. During the hunting season, there are picnic Yugur hospitality learning, to roast whole in the most unique picnic, at which time, hunting of wild sheep viscera removed first, then red-hot dozens of pieces of gravel-sized quickly into the body of the sheep, then the whole sheep (with fur) buried kang, the cover of loess, Lei Cheng small round fort, to be two to three hours after stripped of loess, remove from the fire pit, eating sheep dip sauce . In the picnic, there will be hunting wild goats, chopped, stuffed into a sheep stomach turn, the buried fire burning over the fire pit, training on the loess, cast mud, half-time stew that is cooked, picnic people mixture of wild onion, wild garlic, ground roll skin, enjoy. Banquet or festival, are generally also have wine and meat, when a King Yugur drinking two cups of learning, in addition to the wine drinking liquor, wine, a variety of colors, the more of a unique highland barley wine.

    Typical production of various food dishes with mutton Yugur, which is more representative of the sausages and dried fruit sticks. Sausage is the neck of the sheep meat and loin chop, mix salt and spices, cooked noodles, put in cooked sheep intestines; support dried fruit is the goat liver, lung and other internal organs fried noodles mixed with chopped , onions, garlic, oil volume with belly rolls, cooked. When the sausages and eating dried fruit sticks sliced, dipped in garlic, vinegar, and vegetable is an indispensable drinks.

Chinese Culture of the Bonan

Bonan due to customs and beliefs of Islam and of Muslim Luetong, also known as the “security back.” 1950, according to the wishes of the peoples, naming Bonan. Bonan mainly in the northwestern Gansu Province, China Jishishan County home within the river, along the column set. Population of 12,000 people (the fourth census in 1990).

    Security Mongolian language belongs to Altaic family, common Chinese language.

    Bonan many Muslims.

    Business people in the economic life of the security plays an important role. Century-old river home market, unprecedented, for connecting Qinghai, Gansu, and other material distribution center. The production of well-known security broadsword hundred years of history, more than 30 varieties, sold all over the Northwest, particularly loved by Tibetan people.

    Bonan also saved some similarities with the Mongolian nomadic habits, such as love wrestling, good riding and shooting and so on. Bonan dominated by rice, beef and mutton to eat, avoid eating pigs, horses, donkeys, dogs and poultry all the fierce beasts.

    Security people usually choose the wedding of the Islamic calendar, “Friday Prayers” (every Friday), to women at home wedding. Annual Eid al-Fitr, Id al-Adha religious festival and St. Clement’s festival.

    September 30, 1981, established the Autonomous County of Gansu Jishishan.


    Daily Sisu

    Bonan daily food rice and a side, most of the more emphasis on pasta, practices similar to other ethnic groups with the North. There are bread, rolls, pancakes, kang pan steamed bun, steamed buns, noodle soup, Sào face, cold noodles, gluten slurry water and squeeze so many grains such as corn is ground into the surface after more than food, including rice and unique mix of food scattered group, is made with the grains surface. Millet are usually used to make porridge. Old to the winter we need to do some grains fried noodles, is now rare. Kang pan bread and steamed bread is the most common staple food. Kang pan steamed bun approach is to ferment the dough after the amount of dried noodles mixed with soda and added some vegetable oil, kneading after the pot into the kang, and some joined in the dough Shihai layered vegetable oil, as well as The added salt or sugar, and rub in a bun on a variety of patterns, such as peony, rose, seal tightly after wok. Kang Kang Dong pot buried in hot then the temperature inside the fire, after appropriate barbecue, it becomes yellow crisp outside, soft inside flesh kang pan steamed bun. Thickness according to the size of the pot, steamed bread, 250 grams of small, large 3-5 kg, 15 cm thick, thin, 5 cm. Kang pan thickness of 3 cm. Past, mainly copper pots, and later to the main cast iron pot, now dominated by aluminum pan. Before the wheat harvest, Bonan every family to do green wheat buns. Meat than beef, mutton, the chief food chicken, duck, fish, mutton is generally the meat dish. In addition, Bonan that pigeon porridge has five internal organs, the benefits of effort function, often as a Diet for recovering from illness, frail people as supplements. The practice is slaughtered pigeons, to the hair wash, cut into blocks to increase the rice (or millet), add some of the Juema (perennial herb, root rich in starch, can be cooking or wine), warm fire Dunlan food, tea is a daily necessity Bonan, more attention to non-tea, usually in winter, Fu tea drinking, tea, Tuo, Shaanxi drink green tea in summer and spring tip.

    Festivals, rituals Sisu

    Baoan festival with the same number of Muslim nations, such as Eid al-Fitr, Id al-Adha, San worship and Japan, every family should bomb San Son, oil , fragrant honey and oil circles. Fried San Son, and of which the most popular fragrant oil, not only during the festive season, to be slaughtering, sheep, chickens and ducks. Dinner guests with all the sheep I most solemnly. Bonan all the sheep I practice the whole sheep cooked with spices, according to ribs, back, front and rear legs, hips, neck, tail sub-parts cut open, then chop a finger-thick bone, big meat hand, Each part of the installation a table, for diners to choose from, sheep head, feet, offal Jiamai Jen soup, but also a food. In addition to the whole sheep, ordinary cooking chicken, ducks should add a good cook whole spices, cooked and then punished by the bone cut to 14 or steam interface, or stir-fried chicken head and neck in addition to all but Sheng Panzi the table, Folk said the bulk of water or chicken stir-fried chicken. Young men and women get married, repairing the customary banquet banquet by the man’s home, but the first three days of the bride groom’s family does not eat rice, but by her parents sent, did not forget to show parents upbringing. In the festival or festive day, not only pay attention to food, tea is also different from ordinary days, then taking a dip in bowl of rock sugar, dried longan, known as the three tea, but also put some dried apricots, raisins called spiced tea, tea sets and even have a good selection.

Chinese Culture of the De’ang


De’ang originally called “collapse of the Dragon.” September 17, 1985 approved by the State Council officially changed its name to De’ang. “Collapse Dragon” he said, the claim of non-native, De’ang branches in more than two thirds of the people who called themselves “Deang”, meaning “Shiyan.”

    De’ang southwest border is the oldest existing residents in one of the nation, far away in the second century BC, lived in the Nu West Bank. Luxi County, Yunnan Province, settled in Taishan and Zhenkang military get other places, scattered in Dehong, Baoshan, Lincang and Simao. Population of 15,000 people (the fourth census in 1990).

    De’ang mainly engaged in agriculture, rice, corn, buckwheat son, potatoes, etc., good tea.

    Language, text: De’ang have their own language, is Austro-Asiatic Mon-Khmer language family Wa Deang language branch.

    De’ang no text in this nation, General Dai language, Chinese language.

    Religion: Theravada Buddhism in De’ang Run devout sect. In the vast majority of the village where the temple and have their own worship of the Buddha, and a monk. Zhaifan all novices who take turns giving the Quanzhai. In some De’ang in the past have been killed do not eat, see, rising to eat habits. Until after 1950, these circumstances have changed.

    Marriage: In De’ang engagement ceremony, young men and women to chop the chicken head, if the identity of a rooster and chicken for two and a half, both sides can not go back; marriage if the woman do not agree with this article, you must not kill a chicken. The wedding is usually a three-day, 3 days Quanzhai young and old to go to the groom, the bride home, Hershey, both by the parents of the bride and groom’s dinner, and accompanied by antiphonal singing, all night celebration.

    Festivals: De’ang folk festivals are Songkran, closed section, open the door section, white wood burning, etc., mostly with Buddhist activities.

    In the open section, there are temples of the village to carry out “box to listen to sacrifice” (celebrating the harvest, like the epistemic meaning m), December 13 from the Dai Li began to prepare, with Chung new rice, cooked new rice, rice cakes and other activities to do and to select the two cakes into the Village’s public housing (ie, used exclusively for worship Quanzhai housing), the next day festival Quanzhai open to craftsmen by the Village in a small house made with bamboo strips (Dai said cell listen), built-cake, by the people carrying bamboo room in the temple worship.

    White wood burning that day, each prepared to kill a chicken wine, a meal Quanzhai copolymer, but also produce various kinds of rice cakes, wrapped with banana leaves, steamed and carry each other giving each other tasting each flavor , newly married couples to bring sugar and rice cakes to the head of the Village elders told the family worship.

    There De’ang Family Church Festival, Village of God, to God, the dragon, Gu Niang and other ritual practices, of which the most fun festival dragon. Memorial day general election in the spring, then to slaughter a pig, chickens, dragon drawing paper by the priest, everyone bowed down, and then picnic with alcohol, drunk cursed each other, usually between vent discontent. Not allowed to discourage others here, until both sides were exhausted fighting until the next day to apologize to each other.

    Sisu De’ang the vast majority of daily staple food is rice, mixed with some areas corn and potato. Are stewed and steamed food, which specializes in a variety of food products, such as: pea flour, tofu, rice noodles, rice cakes, Baba, dumplings and so on. Wide variety of vegetables, bamboo shoots is one of perennial vegetables, in addition to fresh food, the more processed into Suansun or dry edible bamboo shoots. Other vegetable consumption, are accustomed to when cooking stew with Sour Bamboo Shoots, boiled sour (fire + bar) acid (fire + bar) food, or oil, lobster sauce, salt, mixed boiled vegetables into. Suansun wide range of uses, even in the chicken, pork or fish should be added Suansun cooking seasoning. By the local Han Chinese influence, many Han Chinese-style pickles, brine is De’ang rot common dishes on the table.

    De’ang tea history, tea is not only standing in civil De’ang drinks, the best gift is the gift. A bamboo must be cut out, cut a bevel, into the tea into the spring, with the open fire drinking, unique flavor. De’ang also drink tea acid, also known as wet tea, called Valley of tea or sell tea. Acid tea in the tea add a little betel nut, into a large bamboo in compaction, sealing the mouth tube, placed one to two months out after fermentation, ponder into the mouth, sour taste, can be fluid to quench their thirst, and hot weather heat, digestion role.

    De’ang folk pottery history and use of bamboo products, appliances, all cooking meals, mostly home-made pottery and bamboo.

    Festivals, ritual, etiquette Sisu De’ang most believe in Theravada Buddhism, in most villages have their own temples and in the worship of the Buddha, and a monk. Zhaifan all novices who take turns giving the Quanzhai. In some De’ang in the past have been killed do not eat, see, rising to eat habits. Until after 1950, these circumstances have changed. Most De’ang folk festivals and Buddhist activities. Such as: splash, closed sections, open sections, such as wood burning white holiday, have to worship. In the opening section of the village to the temple when a “grid listen Festival” (celebrating the harvest, like the epistemic meaning m), December 13 from the Dai Li began to prepare, with Chung new rice, cooked new rice, rice cakes and other activities to do, and to select the two cakes into the Village’s public housing (ie, used exclusively for worship Quanzhai housing), the next day festival Quanzhai open to craftsmen by the Village in a small house made with bamboo strips (Dai said the grid listening), built-cake, by the people carrying bamboo room in the temple worship. White wood burning that day, each prepared to kill a chicken wine, a meal Quanzhai copolymer, but also produce various kinds of rice cakes, wrapped with banana leaves, steamed and carry each other giving each other tasting each flavor , newly married couples to bring sugar and rice cakes to the head of the Village elders told the family worship. Festive, dinner with each other as vulgar, regardless of how many dishes on the dinner banquet, to have a bowl of fresh vegetables, boiled vegetables, food to eat when dipped in pepper, unique flavor. Home brewed alcohol are mostly bamboo rice. There De’ang Family Church Festival, Village of God, to God, the dragon, Gu Niang and other ritual practices, of which the most fun festival dragon. Memorial day general election in the spring, then to slaughter a pig, chickens, dragon drawing paper by the priest, everyone bowed down, and then picnic with alcohol, drunk cursed each other, usually between vent discontent. Not allowed to discourage others here, until both sides were exhausted fighting until the next day to apologize to each other.

    In De’ang engagement ceremony, young men and women to chop the chicken head, if the identity of a rooster and chicken for two and a half, both sides can not go back; if the woman does not agree to this marriage, it is not allowed to kill a chicken. The wedding is usually a three-day, 3 days Quanzhai young and old to go to the bride and groom home Hershey, both parents by the bride and groom’s dinner, and accompanied by antiphonal singing through the night.